18 August 2014

Gojaznost

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Gojaznost (lat.obesitas) se manifestuje prilikom povećanja telesne težine za 10% više od idealne. Nastaje zbog prekomernog unosa energetskih materija u odnosu na dnevne potrebe bazalnog metabolizma.

Uzročnik je mnogih degenerativnih oboljenja, i nije samo estetski problem.

Usled prekomerne težine dolazi do:
– kardiovaskularnih oboljenja (hipertenzije, infarkta…),
– dijabetesa,
– poremećaja menstrualnog ciklusa,
– oštećenja zglobova,
– oboljenja kože,
– poremećaja balansa hormona,
– imunoloških poremećaja,
– respiratornih oboljenja (jer masno tkivo u trbuhu potiskuje dijafragmu i pluća, smanjuje plućnu ventilaciju, izaziva hipoksemiju i različite respiratorne komplikacije),
– oboljenja žučne kese,
– psihosocijalne komplikacije (osoba izbegava izlaske i druženja, veći je rizik od invaliditeta, javljaju se stresovi na radnom mestu…)
– kancerogenih oboljenja (kod žena najčešće karcinom dojke, a kod muškaraca karcinom debelog creva i prostate)…

Najoptimalnija dijeta treba da bude raznovrsna i da sadrži 500 kcal manje od optimalnih dnevnih energetskih potreba. Na taj način će doći do gubitka 3-4 kg za jedan mesec. Naročito treba voditi računa da se unose sve hranljive materije u organizam, da se organizam zaštiti od iscrpljivanja, i da se kilogrami izgube na zdrav i bezbedan način.

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